A Study of balloon
Shiro Takahashi

→Pneumatic Sculptur


2) Balloon artificial   →1) Natural
Development of durable balloon
Paper balloons
Sky lantern
1783「Hot air balloon」Montgolfier brothers
paper in silk, 33m diameter, 26min. 8km

Airtight coating of paper balloon
1877「Balloons for reconnaissance」Meiji government forces
Rubberized High quality paper pape, 9m diameter, Coal gas
1944「Fire balloon」Imperial Japanese Army
Mulberry paper, Caustic soda solution and Konjac paste, 10m diameter
Rubber tube
1844「Heat vulcanization of natural rubber」Charles Goodyear
When natural rubber is added to sulfur, polymer rubbers will extend slipped.
Since the rubber membrane is slightly transmitted through the gas, rubber balloons would deflated in one day.
Entropic elasticity elastomer latex
Reinforcement of rubber balloon
1887「Bias tire」John Boyd Dunlop
By using the crossed yarn two layers, they are the shock absorption and the wear resistance.
1946「Radial tire 」Michelin
As the tire is not deformed, it arranged a layer of iron wire in the direction of rotation.
Rubber-coated fabrics
1823「Raincoat rubber cloth」MACKINTOSH
Balloon Cloth
1783「First manned hydrogen balloon」Jacques Charles
rubber coating on linen, 8m diameter, 2 hours
1883「the garment factory of dirigible」Henri Lachambre
1901「No.6」 Santos-Dumont
1909 「Salon de la locomotion aérienne」Grand-Palais
1956「Fiberthin Air House」Frank Lloyd Wright
Balloon Viny
Advertising balloon
Pvc film, 0.2mm thickness, Helium gas
Helium gas of one cubic m to generate a lift of about 1kg in the atmosphere.
When the diameter is less than 2m, it can not rise. Because the self-weight of the vinyl film is larger than the buoyancy of the helium gas.
1931 「Sky of Tokyo」 Shintarou Suzuki

1966「silver clouds」Andy Warhol
Film metallic vapor deposition of nylon and polyester
Polyvinyl chloride
Polyurethane, Synthetic leather
For artist deploy a new art expression in 1960's, balloon was affordable material.
1960 Piero Manzoni
1961ZERO party
1966「Physical Things (performance)」Steve Paxton EAT
1967「5,600 Cubicmeter Package」Christo
1969「A Field of Hot Air Sculptures」 Otto Piene
1968「Structures Gonflables」Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
1992「The fantasy」Yoshikazu Suzuki
Vinyl film 6m-diameter-6pes. 3m-diameter-20pces.
Ballast of Distilled spirits
Advertisement flier for North Korea
2006「Four Horsesr」Max Streicher
Nylon spinnaker
2008「Subway Art」Joshua Allen Harris
Plastic Bag
When the polymer chemistry develops, now artificial membrane is applied in various fields.
When the event is a large amount of the rubber balloon, etc. will be released, it caused environmental problems, paraffin coated with water-soluble balloon has been developed in the paper.
Reinforcement of vinyl
1944「Chair」William H. Miller, Jr
Vinylite tube ring, string netting
Reinforce the agricultural plastic film in fishing nets
The waterproof cloth Tarpaulin
Tarpaulin of English is etymology covers cloth (pall) painted with tar (tar). Waterproof cloth for covering the ones on the ship originally.
Tarpaulin is laminated polymer resin film to the fabric of polymer filaments.
1919pat.「tents for field-hospitals」Frederick W. Lanchester
1948『Radome』 Cornell Aeronautic Laboratory

Inflatable play equipment
Temporary building
1970「Instant City」Archigram
Huge floating city concept
1970「Performance」Theo Botschuiver & Jeffrey Shaw
1972「Pneumatic Sculpture」Shiro Takahashi
The creation of the Neumatic Sculpture from the computer graphics of the wire frame.
Durable cloth that has been manufacturing PVC and synthetic rubber is bonded to several layers is used such as Inflatable boat etc..
1970年 Theo Botschuiver & Jeffrey Shaw []
Balloon of metal
The liquefied LPG, it can store in the spherical tank.
In the case of 20 ℃, the pressure required to liquefy the propane is 0.86MPa.
The inside of the fuselage structure of the jumbo jet has been made in setting a positive pressure.
The jumbo jet flying a low altitude of the atmospheric pressure is pressurized to 0.8 atm. It becomes the balloon state by the pressure difference created between the cabin and the outside.
If the cabin upon landing remains at 0.8 atm, it became a negative pressure against the atmospheric pressure. And trouble will occur in the strength maintenance.
1985「 Pressure bulkhead corruption」JAL123 Ostakayama
Reinforced glass cloth and teflon membrane by iron wire.
Iron wire are dispersed large tension internal air pressure will occur. 340 tons of roof, is supported by internal air pressure 20mmAq.
Air pressure 20mmAq is the same pressure as the water pressure at the water surface under 2cm.
At the time of snow, it is necessary to addition to air pressure commensurate with the weight of the snow.
Nylon fabric with the water-repellent
1960「Modern hot air balloon」Ed Yost
non porous synthetic fabrics, maneuvering vents
1973「BABOT] Shiro Takahashi
Aylon fabric, Acrylic coating

Pneumatic mechanism Soft machine
Instinct to the floating
Is obsessed with the Earth's gravity, the human race living in the surface of the Earth, has been dreaming of flying the sky,
God and the angels will jump freely sky,
1505「Triptych of the Temptation of St. Anthony」Hieronymus Bosch
Control of dirigible
1901「Santos-Dumont #5」Santos-Dumont
Santos succeeded in the flight that goes around the Eiffel Tower.Changing the size of the air chamber located inside of the hydrogen gas chamber adjust the buoyancy of the airship by.
This method of buoyancy adjustment is the same principle as the fish. Also has been used to the flying of the submarine.
Opening and closing mechanism
parachute vent
Driving mechanism
Handling mechanism
1988 US Pat.「Air film mechanism」Shiro Takahashi
air suspension
Air springs can attenuate the fine vibration. It can not be absorbed by the metal spring.
Since there is not sliding parts, there is no need for maintenance.
By varying the amount of air, it is possible to set the spring rate and ride height.
Bellows Bourdon-tube 
Logic element by the membrane
bicuspid aortic valve

Skin-like electronic circuit
Very thin film-type organic transistor integrated circuit having a thickness of 19 nm can be folded .It can take advantage, stuck on the balloon membrane。

Human body and balloons
Soft culture
As a material for symbolic and eternal monument of authority, stone and metal have been the mainstream of art.
On the contrary, soft materials such as fur, straw, cloth, bamboo, gourd-mud, it has been considered to have a low value.
However, human body likes warm and soft things than hard and cold things.
Automotive interior representing the machine civilization has been covered with a soft cushion.
Gunpowder is ignited by the collision sensor, sodium nitride undergoes a chemical reaction by the heat and pressure, nitrogen gas occurs.
400 ° hot gas generated is cooled by the principle of adiabatic expansion by passing through a screen.
The inflated and deflated time is 0.125 seconds
Nylon cloth, Nitrogen gas
Life jacket
In an emergency, vaporize the Solid carbon dioxide 20g and inflate the life jacket.
Nyron cloth, Urethane coating
Coveralls for anti-G
Pilot of a jet fighter, in the inertial force when the aircraft suddenly turning, blood pressure in the brain is reduced.
There is a risk of degradation or vision loss of consciousness,
Pilot is fitted with a balloon-like anti-G coveralls. By compressing the legs with balloons and uniformly maintain the blood volume in the body.
portable hyperbaric chambers
Housing the climbers of altitude sickness, and increase the internal pressure with the foot pump. 7kg
1896「」Scipone Riva Rocci
1914「pat.」Samuel Siegfried Karl von Basch
Inflatable Hazmat suit
Gas mask
wearable housing function
1968「Suitaloon」Michael Webb
Living function is mounted on the clothes.
The lifestyle of the individual is representing the architecture, rather than expressed in clothing.

Balloon in space
Space suit
For the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the space suit, it need a large force when bending the joint portion.
Therefore, early spacesuit lowers the internal pressure to 0.3 atm, was filled with pure oxygen。Extravehicular activity
NASA Glove
Space habitat
Space Emergency Bag
Person is entered in the balloon with a diameter of 86cm, it is drifting space, and wait for the rescue.
Oxygen inhaler, the radio signaling device, carbon dioxide for expansion, are equipped.
Balloons made of heat-resistant fiber, to maintain the internal pressure, and protects the human body from radiation, sunlight, small meteor.
Balloon satellite
1960 Project Echo「Satelloon」
The balloon satellite functioned as a reflector, not a transceiver
polyester film, metal coating on the surface, 30.5m diameter, 0.0127mm thickness
Ultra-long flight balloons for stratospheric observation」
polyester fiber wuth polyester film, Helium gas, 140m diameter, 52km altitude

Mars landing
1997 Mars Pathfinder「Sojourner 」
After parachute to an altitude 300m of Mars, the 12 pieces of balloons are inflated, and bounce three times, and soft landing to Mars.
polyester fiber, Carbon dioxide
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