A Study of balloon
Tama Art University bulletin 2006
Shiro Takahashi

→Pneumatic Sculptur

bladder, ball, balloon, bowl, bulb
belly, bellows

1) Natural balloon   →2) Artificial Material extending
Bladder of pig
Bladder there is airtight. It does not leak air.
Germanic tribes is to dismantle the pig, using most of the sites in cooking, but the inedible bladder became the children's toys.
Historically, the pig bladder had several additional uses, all based on its properties as a lightweight, stretchable container that could be filled and tied off.
Pieter Bruegel de Oude『Children's Games』1560年
Intestines of cattle
Goldbeater's skin is the fine tissue forming the outer coat of a cow's intestine.
Strips of about 10 cm are cut, and the fat removed by washing in warm water and scraping with a blunt knife.

1900 Rigid airship「Zeppelin 」
A cotton-cloth-cover, rigid aluminum framework, containing 17 hydrogen cells made with gold beater's skin.
1908「View of the Bridge at Sevres」Henri Rousseau

Swim bladder of fish
Fish the air sacs in the body is inflated / reduction, to adjust the body's buoyancy, then freely swimming in the water.

Balloon of Goat-leather
Life-buoy The whole peeled bag of sheep skin, it becomes the bladder for the river crossing by blowing breath.

Waterskin to carry the water in the dry zones, moderately moisture evaporates from the surface, there is a cooling effect.
Bellows of wineskins to cause the fire was a living tool for a long time.
Display of self-revelation
Balloonfish inflated the skin of the body a balloon-like, and a display of self-revelation.
Frigate birds will be courting the female by raising the cries inflatable throat.
Hydrostatic skeltons
Earthworms, make the exercise by applying pressure to the body fluids of the membrane body.
Sea anemones   
Plant of balloons
Bladder Senna's membranous pericarp will become a bag-shaped wrapping fruit.

Water hyacinth
The petiole is make the swim bladder.

Floating Cyanobacteria
Form a colony covered with agar matterm. And completely covering the large-generated water surface in eutrophication advanced lakes
Bacteria adhered to the surface, such as teeth, to excrete a sticky polymer. It will form a film body for protection.
Bacteria, protozoa, algae, they are living in the interior of the biofilm. And help each other to each other, and then organized a closed colony.

Super-thin film
Amphiphilic molecules having both hydrophobic and water repellency, will automatically form a bag-like bilayer in water.

Soap balls
By the action of the water surface tension and surface active material, to form a spherical shape is the smallest form of surface area.
Thick portion of the soap balls, and extends earlier than the thin part, because the whole film is to become a uniform thickness, you can inflate up to the thinness of the molecular level.
When the thickness of the film reaches the molecular level, the wavelength of light is interference, it becomes a pattern of rainbow colors, black spots will rupture appeared to further thinned.
Grass ball
In the air blown glass is made by blowing a breath into the glass dissolved at elevated temperature, it is possible to make extremely thin spherical.
Temperature difference occurs in the thin portion and a thick portion of the glass of high temperature, because the thick portion is high temperature is extended to the first, and because automatically becomes a uniform thickness.
Sucre Soufflé
Chewing gum
In the case of rubber balloon, on the contrary, weak thin portion than the thick part, because the thin portion extends increasingly thin, the inflating size is limited.
Ethylene-vinyl acetate
1998 Polyurethane Condom
Plateau's laws
Soap film is always in contact with three, boundary to form the angle of each other to 120 °
Janthina janthina
Purple snail, with mucus that is secreted from the foot, to make a transparent bubble, floating the ocean
Texture of foam
Foods containing foam, such as cake, there is a unique texture that was a soft lightly.
Texture of herring roe is a pleasure balloon will burst.。
Baking powder
Open-celled structure
Bubble holes in the sponge sponge has continuous continuously.
There are a variety of invention for the production of open-celled structure.
Foaming of the metal

Foam fire extinguisher
Applied to fuel fires as either an aspirated or nonaspirated form to form a frothy blanket or seal over the fuel, preventing oxygen reaching it. Unlike powder, foam can be used to progressively extinguish fires without flashback.br> Elephant toothpaste

Phase space
Inside and outside of the balloon
Surface Tenshon
Above and below the surface
Water-striders is riding on top of the surface tension.
Mosquito larvae is hanging below the surface tension.
Surface, it exists even on the inside on the outside of the interface.
inside and outside of balloon
Lethocerus deyrollei is to create a bubble in the water, to live in it.
Fighting fish Betta protect the eggs and make a nest of bubbles.


Internal space of balloon
1970「Pepsi Pavilion for the Expo '70」E.A.T.
In the interior of the rigid dome structure, it inserts a huge balloon that aluminum vapor deposition. By sucking the air between the rigid dome and balloons, to form a precise negative spherical mirror.
The audience will be able to enter and exit directly to the inside of the balloon.
Outer spaceob balloon
Negative pressure in the balloon
Vacuum packaging

Entropy of the membrane
Permeable membrane
1503「The Garden of Earthly Delights」Hieronymus Bosch
Is transmitted through the balloon membrane, men and women of the nude will continue to fall.
Such as when the skin is peeled off in the shoe sore, accumulate moisture in the epidermis, it becomes the balloon-like blisters.
"Waste removal" of blood "electrolyte maintenance," "amount of water maintained"

Water spider
The internal pressure of the water of the foam is higher than the surrounding by water pressure and surface tension.
Carbon dioxide becomes a carbon, and then rapidly diffuse into the water.
Nitrogen is left to the end, it keeps the shape of a bubble.
When Insects breathe the oxygen, oxygen is supplied from the water.

Egg cell
Eggs are covered with a soft balloon but is protected by the hard shell at the time of ovulation.
In the case of aquatic organisms, and growth remains soft balloon.
Human beings will grow in the body of the amniotic membrane. And humans break the balloon, and be born.
Copy food
Inside of the polymer balloon, the bud of lettuce was sealed along with the nutrient, artificial seeds have been developed.
Artificial salmon roe is a copy food to be prepared by the aqueous solution of sodium alginate applied the jelly-like balloon technology to build by drip to potassium chloride aqueous solution.
Cell membrane has to adjust the material and energy to move inside and outside of the membrane body.
Artificial skin
Artificial skin is made from a component of "chitosan" of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp
It was attached by intermolecular force to the surface of the organ, it can withstand up to a pressure of 20mmHg.

Metaphor of balloons
The Empty Throne 
Jesus birth earlier, as preparing symbolizes the seat of Jesus for justice and judgment, it has been drawn balloon.
Spherical Border
Balloon is a metaphor, partitioning the thoughts world.
1516「The Garden of Earthly Delights 」Hieronymus Bosch
1888「Hibo-Kannon」Kano Hogai
1943「Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man」Salvador Dalí
1568「The Misanthrope」Pieter Bruegel

FramingAlbert Robida
Fantastic archetype
Visionary space
1776「Night Parade of A Hundred Demons 」Toriyama Sekien

1878“Eye-Balloon” Odilon Redon
1883“Le-Balloon” Odilon Redon

1967 "The beautiful relations" René Magritte

Skin between the imaginary and the real
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
Funny of the arts lies subtle of the border of the real and imaginary
「9 phase of corpse」
The difference is in the men and women of skin, but bone same.
「Bian Lian」 [YouTube] [] []
Marcel Duchamp
Passage from two-dimensional to three-dimensional
Dream, Phantom, Bubble, Shadow
Bubbles will metaphor, the ephemeral human existence, certainty no illusion, and a delusion.。
People prefer balloons, but people do not recognize the value of balloon.
Because people do not like the presence of a weak myself as bubbles. People seem to yearn to eternal life and reliable science, robust property and immortality of art.
1212「Hōjōki 」Kamo no Chōmei

Dynamics of micro balloon
Supernatural fiery ball
Animal put in the air from mouth, and put out the air. When the air stops, we die. And the concept was born there is a vitality in the air.

Oxygen in the air is combined with the blood in the lungs. Blood around the whole body, and supplies the vigor to the whole body.

Alveolus is a very fine sphere diameter of about 0.3mm, the surface tension is very small force. Moreover, it is secreted surfactant phospholipids from alveolar endothelial cells, and further reduce the surface tension. Therefore, the alveoli do not collapse completely in the atmosphere.
Pleural cavity
Lung, inside the thoracic cavity, surrounded by the ribs. Since between the thoracic cavity and lungs has a negative pressure, lungs are yet arrived in the thoracic cavity. When scratch the film, air is leaking from the lungs to the chest cavity, lungs shrink in the surface tension of the alveoli.

Respiratory mechanics
Instinct of floating
Water organisms have evolved into land animals the, by changing the swim bladder to the lungs.
Dinosaur was running around on the ground, in pursuit of instinct to fly in the sky. As a result, by increasing the number of air sacs of the lungs, and has evolved into birds.
Dinosaur that gave up to fly is now a snake.
Birds symbolize heaven, and snake symbolize hell.
Bubble wrap
Polyethylene sheet, bubble diameter 10 mm height 4mm
For bubble is small, breaking strength per bubble can withstand about 500gf.
Moreover, since a large number of bubbles are continuing, it will be a large force.

Balloon catheter
By being inserted into a blood vessel, to push the thrombus part.
In order to inflate the extremely fine balloon, it must have the high pressure of 0.4Mpa-1.6Mpa.
However, It does not need to be the tough membrane material, because it is very fine balloons.
Hollow ceramic particles
It was developed as a thermal insulator for the Space Shuttle.
Fullerene molecule "C60"
It is considered a molecular level balloon, made with 60 carbon atoms. It can be stored elemental in this balloon.
Ultra fine bubble
For smaller than the wavelength of light, it is invisible.
Slower rate of rise, It exists long in the water solution.
It is negatively charged, It rebounded, andt does not bind.
Within the bubble is an ultra-high pressure.
By the pressure, active oxygen is generated.

Dynamics of giant balloons
Pascal's Law
The pressure of the fluid applied to a part in the closed vessel is transmitted equally in all directions. Work vertically on the inside of the container.
Boyle's Law
Pressure is inversely proportional to the volume. The pressure is proportional to the square of the particle velocity.Air pressure is collision of a large number of particles which are vigorously exercise.
Surface tension of the balloon is proportional to the diameter of the balloon.
When doubling the diameter, it is necessary to make the strength of the membrane to double.
When doubling the pressure, it is necessary to make the strength of the membrane to double.
The size of the balloon and the relationship of the strength has shifted from the common sense visual sense.

Ceiling collapse 
December 2, 2012 the Chuo Expressway
Sasago Tunnel 

[Jet Fan] []

It is difficult to inflate a small balloon. But inflating the larger became rubber balloon is easy.
If the diameter of the balloon is more than 2m, we can ride on the balloon, even if it is inflated by blowing a breath.
In the case of bicycle tire tube, for a person of 60 kg can ride, it need the air pressure of 0.5Mpa。
「Air hill」Shiro Takahashi Pat.2068787
The results of the experimental operation over one year from 1986, durability and safety is observed, then it was spread across the national park. Total length 50m

Hugei balloon
1967「Cloud Nine」Buckminster Fuller
By heating the inside of the air, a huge structure floats.

Wind pressure 
         ρ: (kg・sec2/m3)
         V : wind speed(m/s)
         S : Pressure receiving area(m2)
         Cx : Resistance coefficient

per One Square meter 

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